Silviculture of new broadleaved plantations: shaping and thinning
Prof. Maarten Nieuwenhuis, University College Dublin
Dr Ian Short, University College Dublin*
Toddy Radford, Teagasc
Jerry Campion, Teagasc
* Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Completion date: January 2010
Approximately 32,000 ha of broadleaves have been planted during the period 1990-2007 (Forest Service 2008). The demand from forest owners and the wider industry for advice on broadleaf tending and thinning, especially for ash but also for other species, has increased in recent years, as demonstrated by the increase in number of enquiries to Teagasc Forestry Development Officers. The introduction of the Tending and Thinning of Broadleaves grant in 2009 as part of the Woodland Improvement Scheme increased the awareness by forest owners of the need for management interventions in order to realise the full potential of their broadleaf crop. An ultimate aim of this project is to provide owners, and the wider industry, with science-based best practice knowledge on the tending and thinning of broadleaves.
Due to external factors at two of the poplar sites, analyses of stem form are ongoing and a complete report will be submitted to COFORD when the analyses have been concluded. A_COFORD_Connects note based on the most recent data will be published in 2010.
Alder tending trial
The objective of this trial is to investigate the effect of thinning intensity on Potential Crop Tree (PCT) growth rate. A 1.4 ha trial located at Kilbride Woods, Arklow, consisting of three treatments in a Latin Square Design, has been established. The three treatments are:
Baseline measurements have been captured. The Light and Heavy tending treatment plots have been tended. Data to enable the calculation of volume to 5 cm diameter of each thinned stem have been captured.
Ash tending trial
A new ash tending trial has been established in Co Mayo that is envisaged to become part of a larger trial as more sites become available. The objective of the trial is to investigate the effect of two thinning intensities on PCT growth rate.
Ash tending demonstration days
Two ash tending demo days were held with approximately 200 attendees at each. The first was held on 20 May at The Rower, Inistioge, Co Kilkenny. Dr Ian Short and Toddy Radford also presented at the Forest Service in-house training held directly after the event. The Teagasc "Silvicultural Guidelines for the Tending and Thinning of Broadleaves", written by Dr Ian Short and Toddy Radford, was launched at the demonstration day. The second demonstration day was held at Four Mile House, Co Roscommon, on 22 October. Extraction methods for small-scale tending/thinning operations were also demonstrated. There was also a stop to discuss chainsaw health and safety issues.
Dr Ian Short and Toddy Radford were invited to present the tending and thinning of broadleaves at the Small-Scale Harvesting demonstration day held at Teagasc Ballyhaise College on 27 May. The Irish Farmer's Association also invited them to present the silvicultural guidelines at the IFA Forestry Section meeting on 18 June where the IFA county forestry representatives were present.
Short, I. and Radford, T. 2008. Silvicultural Guidelines for the Tending and Thinning of Broadleaves. http://www.teagasc.ie/forestry/docs/research/
Short, I. and Radford, T. 2009. The 2-Stick Method for Marking Trees. http://www.teagasc.ie/forestry/docs/
download 2008 report as pdf (pdf 223Kb)
Dr Ian Short, Teagasc*
Toddy Radford, Teagasc
* Email: email@example.com
COMPLETION DATE: December 2008
Whilst final crop volume of timber is important for broadleaves, quality is also important due to the different end uses for the timber. Concern has been expressed about the quality and ongoing management of broadleaf afforestation sites as some broadleaf crops have been planted on marginal sites and many areas are neglected after year four. Current broadleaf silvicultural knowledge in Ireland is in its infancy. This project aimed to augment the current silvicultural knowledge of the management of young broadleaf plantations with the aim of producing high quality, valuable timber. Pruning of ash, beech and oak, and tending of ash, has been investigated.
Develop treatment protocols for the early management of broadleaved species to include:
Two demonstration days were held during 2008 at privately-owned sites in Co Westmeath and Co Limerick to demonstrate the tending of ash. Tom Kent (WIT, ForestEnergy programme) demonstrated extraction by quad bike and timber arch and also small-scale firewood processing at one of the demonstration days. An important aspect of the demonstration involves the identification by participants of Potential Crop Trees (PCTs) and trees to be removed during a tending operation. The demonstration days illustrated that, after minimal practical training, the majority of participants can successfully select the correct trees as PCTs and also those to be removed. In addition, Dr Ian Short and Toddy Radford presented the tending of ash at an ITGA/SIF field day held at Johnstown Castle, Co Wexford.
Dr Ian Short participated in the T10Q workshop, held at Oxford University, which had the objective of identifying the top 10 priority questions for forest research. The results of the workshop, however, may not be fully applicable to Ireland as, of the 51 people that participated, only four were from Ireland and therefore there may be priority questions in an Irish context that have not been captured by the voting process.
Dr Ian Short and Toddy Radford attended the Growing Valuable Broadleaves conference at the University of Freiburg. Dr Ian Short also attended the final meeting of COST E42.
The final measurements of the COFORD-funded poplar trials located at Teagasc Kinsealy, Ballyhaise and Kildalton centres were completed during the year.
An alder tending trial is in the process of being established. The trial site has been laid out and potential crop trees and their competitors have been selected. Baseline measurements have been recorded and the site now requires tending and monitoring.
Dr Ian Short and Toddy Radford will continue to provide input to the COFORD broadleaf silviculture programme and the review of Growing Broadleaves. A number of broadleaf tending demonstration days are planned for 2009.
Ash tending demonstration days: 9 April, Crookedwood, Co Westmeath; 17 September, Moroe, Co Limerick; 18 April, Johnstown Castle, Co Wexford. ITGA/SIF field day.
The BROADFORM project was presented on 20 June at FarmFest 2008.
Following consultation with Teagasc Forestry Development Officers and industry, Dr Ian Short and Toddy Radford have written guidelines for the tending and thinning of broadleaves. The BROADFORM project has also had input to the review of the Growing Broadleaves book to be published by COFORD.
Short, I., Bulfin, M. and Radford, T. 2008. COST E42 Growing valuable broadleaves silviculture matrix: An Irish example. Poster presented at the Growing Valuable Broadleaves conference, University of Freiburg, Germany. 5-9 October 2008.
Short, I. and Radford, T. In Press. Silvicultural guidelines for the tending and thinning of broadleaves. Recommendations for the tending and thinning of ash, sycamore, Norway maple, alder, oak (pure), oak with conifer nurse, beech (pure) and beech with conifer nurse. Teagasc.